Salzburg Global Forum on Finance in a Changing World » Overview

The Salzburg Global Forum on Finance in a Changing World is an annual high-level program convened by Salzburg Global Seminar that addresses issues critical to the future of financial markets and global economy in the context of key global trends.

Established in 2011, the Forum offers senior and rising leaders from the financial industry and public sector an opportunity for in-depth, off-the-record conversations on how to build inclusive, open and resilient financial systems and set an agenda for the future.

The Forum’s overarching goal is to facilitate critical analysis of the changing financial landscape and regulatory environment, comparison of practical experience around the world, understanding of technology-driven transformations, and open dialogue on issues of trust and ethics. Each summer, it convenes an internationally representative group of leaders from financial services firms, supervisory and regulatory authorities, consultancies, auditors, law firms and other professional service providers who share a belief that inclusive, efficient and stable financial systems are essential for sustainable growth, shared economic opportunities and prosperity. Going forward, the Forum will continue to explore key developments, strategic shifts and tipping points in global finance, and to help participants learn practical lessons and share international insights.


Salzburg Global Fellow Jerome Powell nominated to chair US Federal Reserve
Jerome Powell speaking at the Salzburg Global Forum on Finance in Changing World in June
Salzburg Global Fellow Jerome Powell nominated to chair US Federal Reserve
Salzburg Global Seminar 
Salzburg Global Fellow Jerome Powell has been nominated by President Donald Trump to be the next Chair of the US Federal Reserve. Powell, who has served as a member of the Federal Reserve Board of Governors since 2012, was announced as a nominee during an afternoon ceremony in the Rose Garden yesterday. In a statement, the White House said, "Today, President Donald J. Trump nominated Jerome H. Powell of Maryland to be Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System for a term of four years beginning February 3, 2018. "As a member of the Federal Reserve’s Board of Governors since May 2012, Mr. Powell has demonstrated steady leadership, sound judgment, and policy expertise. Mr. Powell will bring to the Federal Reserve a unique background of Government service and business experience." His appointment to the position is subject to Senate confirmation. Analysts and media alike will now be examining his recent public remarks for indications on what sort of Chair he will be if confirmed. Powell attended this year's Salzburg Global Forum on Finance in a Changing World - Global Challenges, Regional Responses: How Can We Avoid Fragmentation in the Financial System? During this session, Powell gave a speech on five key areas of focus for regulatory reform and the need to be vigilant against new risks that may develop. On regulation, he said, “We have substantially increased the capital, liquidity, and other prudential requirements for large banking firms. These measures are not free. Higher capital requirements increase bank costs, and at least some of those costs will be passed along to bank customers and shareholders. But in the longer term, stronger prudential requirements for large banking firms will produce more sustainable credit availability and economic growth.” Powell joins Randal K. Quarles as another Salzburg Global Fellow to have been nominated by President Trump for a federal position this year. In July, Quarles was nominated to serve as the Federal Reserve's vice chairman for supervision. Last month he won confirmation by a 65-32 vote in the Senate. If Powell is confirmed, he will be the second Salzburg Global Fellow to have chaired the Federal Reserve. Former chair Paul Volcker has led three sessions at Salzburg Global, including Session 492 - Financial Regulation: Bridging Global Differences - in 2012. Powell currently serves as a member of the Board of Governors alongside Lael Brainard, who spoke at the fifth annual Salzburg Global Forum on Finance in a Changing World - The Future of Financial Intermediation: Banking, Securities Markets, or Something New? - in 2015. Prior to his appointment to the Federal Reserve Board of Governors, Powell was a visiting scholar at the Bipartisan Policy Center in Washington, DC, where he focused on federal and state fiscal issues. Between 1997 and 2005, he was a partner at The Carlyle Group. He also served as an assistant secretary and as undersecretary of the Treasury under President George H. W. Bush.
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Bharat Doshi – "In changing and turbulent times, life is all about awareness, anticipation and agility”
Bharat Doshi speaking at one of the plenaries during the third session on corporate governance.
Bharat Doshi – "In changing and turbulent times, life is all about awareness, anticipation and agility”
Mirva Villa 
Having initially worked in a period of strict government economic regulation before experiencing the freedom of competitive markets, Bharat Doshi, chairman of Mahindra Intertrade, has witnessed freedom for business and corporate governance develop in India through changing times. “Life is all about awareness, anticipation and agility,” said Doshi, speaking to Salzburg Global at Session 582 – The Courageous Director: Can Corporations Better Serve People, Planet, and Profit? This mantra, one which emits a certain air of expertise, is something which Doshi appears to have followed closely. One look at Doshi’s resume reveals the extent of experience he has amassed and the recognition he’s received along the way. Doshi worked for over 40 years for the Mahindra Group, reputed for its high standards of ethics and values, engaged in the manufacture and provision of products and services including automobiles, farm tractors, IT services, financial services, and holiday timeshare resorts. He served as the executive director and group chief financial officer of Mahindra & Mahindra Limited, the parent company, for 21 years and one year as president of Bombay Chamber of Commerce and Industry. In 2016, he was nominated by the government of India as a director on the central board of the Reserve Bank of India. At Salzburg Global, Doshi was one was one of 40 corporate leaders and executives from around the world brought together to draw on their internationally diverse business, legal and academic backgrounds and reflect on the challenges facing corporate governance. In the first 18 years of Doshi’s career, the government in India had a large control over the industrial environment. Licenses were not only needed for the location of the company but were also required to specify how much of a product would be produced and what kind of product it would be. Doshi said, “Somebody in the government would do supply and demand analysis  and would look at how many players are in the field and decide, ‘Okay, you’re a car company, but you can only manufacture 4-Wheel Drive Utility Vehicles, or you can manufacture only trucks, and you will do no more than 20,000 Vehicles. This was often described as “Licence Raj”.” For Doshi and others, grabbing a briefcase and taking a trip to Delhi to obtain approval for business plans was a frequent occurrence. This continued even in the eighties when regulations were relaxed for minimum economic size and for the production of exports. In 1991, however, significant economic reforms were launched in India. Industrial licensing was abolished with a strike of a pen and rules on concentration of economic power were relaxed, “liberalizing the whole economic scenario”. “This was a major change and thereafter we were free to operate, collaborate and proceed with plans that made economic sense,” said Doshi. From a corporate governance perspective, during the strict licensing period pre 1991, some of the industrial corporations demonstrated undesirable skills to “manage” the government, according to Doshi. This changed completely in the competitive markets post liberalization and benefitted companies like the Mahindra Group which believed in its core values. He added that India, now, despite the competitive market environment, has sufficient labor laws and sufficient mechanisms to encourage social responsibility. For example, the amended Company Law has a new clause on corporate social responsibility, which came into effect in 2014, requiring companies in India to spend at least two percent of their profits on social development monitored under the principle of 'comply or explain'. The law has been criticized by some but the spend for social and environmental causes of the private sector did increase in the two years after its introduction. In addition to this measure, there are also requirements in place for 50 percent of the company board to be independent – if the chairman is independent, a third will suffice. Doshi sees this measure as a good thing and a sign that the business culture is becoming more transparent. “I believe getting different and external viewpoints on the table improves governance,” said Doshi. On the subject of increase in the level of disclosures in annual reports, Doshi commented that requirement of disclosures leads to discussion and therefore a conversation, which by itself has its merits.  He however cautioned against voluminous disclosures which become ‘weapons of mass distraction’ and may be undesirable. To stay competitive in a global market, a business director has to adapt with the times and have the courage to change from what they’re familiar with. While it is important to refine practices, Doshi said it is important for professionals to know their core values – values which they won’t give up under any circumstances. “I learnt in my career that you should be agile, you should be flexible, but your set of values are like the North Star. They should remain steadfast,” said Doshi. Many participants at this year’s Salzburg Global Forum on Corporate Governance were making their first trip to Schloss Leopoldskron. Doshi, on the other hand, was retracing his steps and following a path trodden twice before. Doshi had a “wonderful experience” in 2000 as a participant of Session 384 – Asian Economies: Regional and Global Relationship. He said, “I still have a few friends from that group of 30 with whom I am in regular touch with, and that bond and sharing memories also makes a difference.” In 2015, he made his second visit, attending Salzburg Global’s first session on corporate governance. What makes him keep coming back? “Salzburg Global Seminar is where your mind is free from your day-to-day world and you are able to concentrate your thoughts on a defined topic, you are able to understand and appreciate global practices and above all, you are able to evolve in your own mind the principles and the theory behind the topic you are discussing.” Bharat Doshi attended The Salzburg Global program The Courageous Director: Can Corporations Better Serve People, Planet, and Profit?, which is part of the multi-year series, the Salzburg Global Forum on Corporate Governance. The session is being supported by Shearman & Sterling LLP, BNY Mellon, UBS, Barclays, CLP Group, Goldman Sachs, and Teledyne Technologies. More information on the session can be found here.
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Susan Revell – A workplace that doesn’t reflect society won’t attract the talent it needs
Susan Revell participated in the third session of Salzburg Global forum on corporate governance
Susan Revell – A workplace that doesn’t reflect society won’t attract the talent it needs
Mirva Villa 
“‘Courageous director’ for me would be somebody who is willing to speak up, stand out, take a path maybe less traveled,” said Susan Revell, general counsel and chief controls officer for Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) at BNY Mellon. Revell, who leads the Legal, Risk, Compliance and Corporate Project Management Office and regional area management teams across EMEA, reflected on the role while attending the third session of the Salzburg Global Forum on Corporate Governance. “Courage and independence may actually be quite similar bedfellows in a way,” she added. “I think you need to be courageous if you want to constructively challenge or if you want to be respectfully confrontational in the boardroom.” Passionate about improving diversity and inclusion in the workplace, Revell is the EMEA executive sponsor for BNY Mellon’s Women’s Initiative Network (WIN). Revell revealed she’s been fortunate never to have felt like her gender was a constraining factor in her career. “I’ve hopefully been enabled by my sponsors and my mentors to get involved in things which have seen me grow and develop at the companies I’ve worked for. I think society perhaps hasn’t changed as much as I would have hoped over the last 20 years,” Revell said. After speaking with some of the young women in their regional offices at BNY Mellon earlier this year, Revell found a lot of stereotypical responsibilities - such as looking after children or caring for elderly parents - still fell on young women. By sponsoring the network, Revell has been able to show her support for female employees by giving them tools and helping them seek out real role models they can relate to or aspire to be professionally.Revell said, “It's ensuring that the females in our employee population have fulfilling careers and that they can see the next stage of development.” To improve diversity and inclusion in the workplace, all parties have to be involved in the conversation. “I try to encourage the men in our group to engage and learn and not be fearful of the gender diversity discussion,” said Revell. “I'm very keen on ensuring that men are advocating for real change too, whether it's because they know it's the right thing to do naturally, or whether they want to ensure that their daughters have that satisfying and fulfilling career experience… I don't mind where they come from, but together we can make change. “My challenge to us all is to bring the society forward.” Earlier this year, BNY Mellon was recognized for their efforts in increasing its commitment to gender equality in the workplace. It received a perfect score in the 15th edition of the Human Rights Campaign’s Corporate Equality Index, which rates workplaces on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender equality. It was also included in the Times Top 50 Employers for Women. Commenting on the latter achievement, Revell said, “I think that says something about our culture. Hopefully, something around it being a fulfilling place to work, with strategies and resources in place that enable rather than constrain. “I think it is a place which appreciates difference and leveraging difference, but in a collegiate and collaborative way and looking to build consensus, at the end of the day. I think those are some of the things that make BNY Mellon an attractive place… I joined four years ago, and I'm very pleased I made that decision.” Concern for the diversity of the workforce has recently been brought up in discussions related to Brexit. Revell says she believes that any geo-political fragmentation, where people behave more exclusively, is likely to be somewhat damaging. “But my professional job is to ensure that we make the best of the hand of cards that we've been dealt and look after our employees and our clients, and ensure the management is thinking creatively about how we use the opportunities that Brexit provides to our company, as well as thinking about how do we limit some of the more damaging aspects.” Participants at this year’s Salzburg Global Forum on Corporate Governance considered several key questions. Among those was: Should board composition reflect the nationalities and demographics of the shareholders, employees, customers, communities served, and supply chains? When asked why diversity is important, Revell said, “I think you need to reflect society, and if a workplace doesn't reflect society then it isn't going to be able to attract and retain the talent that it needs - that we all need in a world where there isn't enough talent to go around it.” The Salzburg Global program The Courageous Director: Can Corporations Better Serve People, Planet, and Profit? is part of the multi-year series, the Salzburg Global Forum on Corporate Governance. The session is being supported by Shearman & Sterling LLP, BNY Mellon, UBS, Barclays, CLP Group, Goldman Sachs, and Teledyne Technologies. More information on the session can be found here.
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Stephanie Bertels – Companies need to think about their long term strategy, not just their quarterly returns
Stephanie Bertels participated in the third session of the Salzburg Global Forum on Corporate Governance.
Stephanie Bertels – Companies need to think about their long term strategy, not just their quarterly returns
Mirva Villa 
Toward the end of 2015, leaders representing more than 200 nations approved a set of goals to transform the world for the better. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aimed to tackle issues such as poverty, education, hunger, and climate change. It was agreed at the time – and remains the case – that for these goals to be achieved, everyone will have to play a role. The topic of how corporations have embedded sustainability to their agenda came up in discussion during the third session of the Salzburg Global Forum on Corporate Governance. This was in part thanks to Stephanie Bertels, the director of the Centre for Corporate Governance and Sustainability at Simon Fraser University’s Beedie School of Business and founder of the Embedding Project. The Embedding Project, founded and led by Bertels, is a community of practitioners and researchers who are working together to help companies include environmental and social factors into their operations and decision making. “The partner companies come to us with their needs what they’re grappling with and then using rigorous research methods we help support their understanding of those issues,” Bertels said. The Embedding Project team will help organizations to re-determine their core strategies with their new goals in mind. “By that I mean, what would your core strategy look like if you took seriously the idea that you, as a company, need to meet and help contribute to strong social foundations, and that you need to adhere to a set of planetary boundaries?” said Bertels. The tools created by the community assist the company in deciding what their thinking is around a social or environmental issue, and what kind of commitments the company will need to adhere to reach their long term goals. While big companies have often taken part in philanthropic efforts in one way or another, the concept of corporate social responsibility first started to take form in the 1950s, with companies beginning to be seen obligated to address the social issues around them. Since the early 2000s the movement has grown into a global phenomenon, as consumers and job seekers are increasingly pushing for companies to take steps toward more ethical behavior. Sustainability’s place in today’s corporate governance is “pretty fundamental”, according to Bertels. “As fiduciaries of a company, you need to be thinking about not just the quarterly returns, but the longer term strategy, the survival and thriving of the organization. Understanding societal expectations and how environmental constraints are going to shape that strategy is completely crucial.” According to Bertels, the environmental constraints on business have become increasingly clear in the recent years. Issues such as climate change present both challenges and opportunities – and boards are starting to understand that they have to be aware how these issues might impact their business. “It’s hard in this day and age to manage a company, direct, oversee, provide a strategic oversight to an organization without asking questions about – and expecting good quality disclosure about – the risks and opportunities of social and environmental issues.” The Salzburg Global program The Courageous Director: Can Corporations Better Serve People, Planet, and Profit? is part of the multi-year series, the Salzburg Global Forum on Corporate Governance. The session is being supported by Shearman & Sterling LLP, BNY Mellon, UBS, Barclays, CLP Group, Goldman Sachs, and Teledyne Technologies. More information on the session can be found here.
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Julie Richardson – "A smooth and functioning governance structure requires openness and respect"
Julie Richardson during the third session of the Salzburg Global Forum on Corporate Governance
Julie Richardson – "A smooth and functioning governance structure requires openness and respect"
Tomas De La Rosa 
An expert in public communication as a corporate governance tool, newly assigned board member of UBS AG Julie Richardson has had a remarkable career in corporate communication. Having business ties with AOL Time Warner, MGM, Comcast, among others, she understands how essential good communication is for success in the corporate world. Near the conclusion of the third session of the Salzburg Global Forum on Corporate Governance - The Courageous Director: Can Corporations Better Serve People, Planet, and Profit?, she spoke with Salzburg Global about what makes a courageous director and good corporate governance practices all companies should follow. Salzburg Global: What communication practices are essential for good corporate governance? Julie Richardson: To have a smooth and functioning governance structure, there has to be openness and respect. Once you have that structure, there is no issue that is “too sensitive” or deep to get to the bottom of. In person discussions are very valuable, despite all the available technologies such as Skype or FaceTime, there is nothing like shutting the door and having a dialogue with people who care deeply about the company and its employees. SG: What conduct or result is executive compensation designed to incentivize and what are effective and appropriate designs to achieve that? JR: Compensation programs are designed to ensure everyone is focused on maximizing the value of the company. In most boardrooms today, over half of the compensation of the chief executive officer and the senior management team is equity-based, long-term in terms of vesting, and it’s about creating long-term value. More boards are leaning into subjective factors such as “Does this person embody the ethics that were are trying to promote?” Compensation is a vehicle through which you can deliver a message, a positive or a negative one. SG: In terms of governance, how is short term planning a glide-point for long term results? JR: Long-term value is what everyone seeks, but your shareholders require as much predictability and less volatility as possible. The most important short term attribute is ensuring that you are communicating clearly and effectively to your shareholders so they are not surprised. This communication ensures that you have the tools and the levers to pull to deliver the long-term value you promised to the shareholders. SG: What, in your opinion, makes a courageous director? JR: A courageous, and effective, director is made by a collegial and respectful attitude, that is able to adapt and react when he or she sees a situation they believe is wrong and voice their opinion about it. Sometimes you have to dig your heels in, and say “We cannot proceed with this” even if the management team or others on the board might not agree. To be courageous, it’s necessary to combine being effective and being seen as the ultimate team member so that when you call out something, you have the respect of your peers and are able to carry the day. SG: What are the three most important things you have learned in your career? JR: It’s all about the people. You can have the best business plan and market, but without the right people and morals, it can all go downhill very quickly. Being able to choose and retain the right people is crucial to success; good people tend to hire other good people, whereas poor performers will seek out poor performers too. You have to stay ahead of the trends in front of us. Fifteen years ago it was all about going digital and the online marketplace, today it’s all about machine-learning and artificial intelligence, and how business will be affected by these. If you are not spending a decent amount of time thinking forward, you run into a serious risk of being left behind. How you treat people is more important than anything, so make sure you focus on your personal conduct and being at your best self at all times. It is how you develop relationships and mutual respect. The world is very small, and if you don’t treat people the way you’d like to be treated yourself it will come back and haunt you. SG: What is the importance of this Salzburg Global Seminar forum and what makes UBS support it? JR: The seminar has been a great experience because it provides a different approach to an issue we deal on a daily basis such as corporate governance. To be able to step out of our daily lives and have a deep discussion around the subject for three days is a rare opportunity. The seminar covered almost every aspect of corporate governance, and the discussion was engaging due to the variety of background of the participants. I am going back to work with a refreshed perspective on how to be a director. Julie Richardson was a participant of the third session of the Salzburg Global Forum on Corporate Governance, The Courageous Director: Can Corporations Better Serve People, Planet, and Profit?. More information can be found here.
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Bob Malone – “The belief that a boardroom is no place for feelings or values is wrong and dated”
Bob Malone – “The belief that a boardroom is no place for feelings or values is wrong and dated”
Tomas De La Rosa 
Robert “Bob” Malone, former president of BP America, is no stranger to crisis management and risk assessment. His work has earned him the title “Mr. Fix It” at various sectors of the British and American energy industries, especially the oil giant BP where he worked for 35 years. Now retired from the energy industry, and currently acting as president and chief executive officer of First Sonora Bancshares, Malone took part in the third session of the Salzburg Global Forum on Corporate Governance to address the topic of courageous directors.Despite his oil-heavy background, Malone is a firm supporter of energy diversity and alternative sources as tools for ensuring energy security and a sustainable future, seeing them as essential parts of corporate environmental and social good initiatives. Alongside former BP chief executive officer Lord John Browne, in his time as president of BP America, Malone pushed for the “Beyond Petroleum” brand through investment and development into alternative energy sources. Said efforts were shut down by Tony Hayward, soon after Browne’s and Malone’s respective departures in 2007 and 2009. During a 2008 lecture at MIT, he questioned previous U.S. energy policies, arguing American administrations and corporations have a responsibility to do better than they have in the past, as there is a necessity for low-carbon-emitting and renewable energy to ensure a sustainable future. In a 2006 interview with the Financial Times, Malone vowed to “learn from what happened at BP America.” Eleven years later, he believes he has. For Malone, the lesson he took from such a turbulent period was one of corporate culture, arguing that more often than not culture is the reason behind crises. He supports this by assessing that, to set a good governance record, a company needs to begin by looking at their culture and how governance should guide employee behavior.“I have never worked in a crisis where the fundamental problem wasn’t culture. Issues start there,” says Malone. “A pipeline spill in Alaska? A culture of not learning, and checking, every day. A propane trading scandal? A culture of profit, all the guidelines were written but the culture told them ‘making money is more important.’”Taking the helm during one of BP America’s most turbulent periods, shortly after becoming the operation’s president in 2006, Malone brought in U.S. district judge Stanley Sporkin as an ombudsman to review the operation’s health and safety, ensuring that employees “had a safe environment to bring their issues to,” he says. Malone argues that “for employees to trust a company and feel safe in the workplace, there must always be an individual who will act as a safe [person] to anonymously raise issues,” as this ensures a healthy workspace that promotes a culture of care.Due to the nature of their roles, it is fair to assume most board members and crisis managers would be cold and calculated to avoid becoming “too involved.” But Malone disagrees with this assumption. To him, corporations and their directors often forget their core values and politicize the social causes they support, using them as publicity stunts to gain the support of the public. Disagreeing with this approach, Malone says, “You don’t have to say much. As long as your employees and clients believe in what you do, they will act as your ambassadors.”An advocate of values-based leadership systems, Malone argues that “boards and employees should follow the same values at all times. The belief that a boardroom is no place for feelings or values, is wrong and dated.” To him, every decision made from the boardroom should be viewed through a lens of values, “they provide guidance, and many directors leave theirs behind when they walk in.”In Malone’s experience, courage in the boardroom comes in the form of listening, not always agreeing with your peers, standing up for corporate values, and putting forward the reasons. He reaffirms this by denouncing directors for hiding behind others, arguing that many seem to “no longer understand the responsibility of their roles and properly articulate them in the boardroom”.Malone argues that a courageous director is one that breaks the boardrooms element of collegiality. “I am independent of management and my colleagues,” says Malone, “I have been put on this board to provide an independent voice, I am not here to sit and nod in agreement.” Bob Malone was a participant of the third session of the Salzburg Global Forum on Corporate Governance, The Courageous Director: Can Corporations Better Serve People, Planet, and Profit?. More information can be found here.
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Salzburg Global Fellow Randal K Quarles confirmed as member of US Federal Reserve board
Salzburg Global Fellow Randal K Quarles confirmed as member of US Federal Reserve board
Oscar Tollast 
Salzburg Global Fellow Randal K. Quarles has been confirmed by the U.S. Senate as a member of the Federal Reserve board. Quarles, 60, was nominated by President Donald Trump in July to serve as the Federal Reserve's vice chairman for supervision. Last week he won confirmation by a 65-32 vote in the Senate and became Trump's first confirmed Fed nominee. Quarles is also the first person to serve in the role and become part of a new approach to financial regulation, as highlighted by The Economist. Mr. Quarles previously worked in the Treasury Department under President George W. Bush between 2002 and 2006, serving first as assistant secretary for international affairs and then as under secretary for domestic finance. In 2014, he helped establish the Cynosure Group, a Salt Lake City-based company which makes long-term equity investments in private companies across a range of industries. Mr. Quarles has taken part in several programs at Salzburg Global. He first attended Schloss Leopoldskron in 2013 for Session 516 - Out of the Shadows: Regulation for the Non-Banking Financial Sector. The following year, he was a participant at Session 546 - The Future of Banking: Is There a Sustainable Business Model for Banks? He took part in his third Salzburg Global Forum on Finance in a Changing World in 2015 when he attended Session 552 - The Future of Financial Intermediation: Banking, Securities Markets, or Something New? His most recent appearance at the Forum, and Salzburg Global was in 2016 when he attended Session 563 - Financing the Global Economy: How Can Traditional and Non-Traditional Sources Be Integrated? The Salzburg Global Forum on Finance in a Changing World is an annual high-level program convened by Salzburg Global which addresses issues critical to the future of financial markets and global economy in the context of key global trends. 
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